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Industry Specifications & Tests

CONTRACT TESTS:

Upholstery flammability tests

For Contract orders pertaining to public areas, please consult with your local Fire Marshal for appropriate testing standards.

CALIFORNIA BULLETIN 117 SEC E: Determines the ease of ignition and burning rate when specimen is subjected to a 5/8” open flame for 1 second.

Coding System:

DNI= Did not ignite when exposed to test ignition source

IBE= Ignited but extinguished before burning through stop cord

SF= Surface flash only, stop cord not burned, no burning/charring/using of the base fabric

TSF= Timed surface flash, stop cord burned, but no burning/charring/using of the base fabric

Rating: Class 1=Pass

Conditions to pass: Without nap: A 5” piece of fabric is consumed in 3.5 or more seconds.

With nap: A 5” piece of fabric is consumed in 4 seconds or more.

Fabric does not ignite.

NFPA 260/UFAC: Measures the ability to resist ignition by a smoldering cigarette when the specimen is tested in combination with polyurethane foam cushioning. Char length and ignition/ non – ignition of substrate are assessed.

Rating System: Pass/Fail

Below are some important websites to visit for more information on their specific products:

Information on LEED, consult the U.S. Green Building Council at www.usgbc.org

ACT & ACT Guidelines: www.contracttextiles.org

Bella-Dura: www.bella-dura.com

Sunbrella: www.sunbrella.com

Crypton: www.cryptonfabric.com

Crypton Green: www.cryptonfabric.com/eco-friendly-fabric

Sensuede: www.sensuede.com

Nano-Tex: www.nano-tex.com

Drapery Flammability Tests

For contract orders pertaining to public use areas, please consult with your local Fire Marshal for appropriate testing standards.

NFPA 701-1989 LARGE SCALE (FLAT METHOD): Measures the ignition resistance of a slightly restrained specimen when exposed to a very severe flame.

Rating System: Pass/ Fail

NFPA 701-1996 TEST #1:

NFPA 701-1999 TEST #1:

A vertical flame test in which it measures the ability of oven conditioned fabrics to self-extinguish after 45 seconds of exposure to a severe flame. Measures mass loss, expressed as a percent and drip burn. Weights are used on test 1999.

Rating System: Pass/Fail

ASTM E 84 ADHERED ( GYPSUM )

Rates flame spread and smoke index of “interior finish building materials” as compared to standard red oak flooring. Select substrate to adhere the specimen according to the end use. Gypsum simulates drywall.

RATING SYSTEM:

Class A: Flame Spread Index of 25 or less and Smoke Developed value of 450 or less

Class B: Flame Spread Index of 26-50 and Smoke Developed value of 450 or less

Class C: Flame Spread Index of 76-200 and Smoke Developed value of 450 or less

ASTM E 84 UN-ADHERED:

Rates flame spread and smoke index of “interior finish building materials” as compared to standard red oak flooring. This method is utilized for materials not ultimately glued to a surface.

RATING SYSTEM:

Class A: Flame Spread Index of 25 or less and Smoke Developed value of 450 or less

Class B: Flame Spread Index of 26-50 and Smoke Developed value of 450 or less

Class C: Flame Spread Index of 76-200 and Smoke Developed value of 450 or less

Flame Resistance: All fabrics burn. There is not a treatment that makes a fabric flame proof; rather, it can be treated to be flame resistant. This treatment retards the burning process, providing a longer egress time (which is the amount of time required for an occupant to escape safely from a fire.) Below are some frequent questions asked about flame resistant finishes:

CAN ALL FABRICS BE MADE FLAME RETARDANT? A qualified yes. Virtually all natural and synthetic fibers can be treated with flame retardant chemicals. Protein fibers such as wool and silk have inherent fire retardant qualities; consequently, they are easily treated to meet the most stringent fire codes. Cellulose fibers such as cotton and linen are easily treated because they readily absorb moisture. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester do not absorb moisture but can be treated with special formulas. Non water durable fabrics such as velvet, moiré, chintz, sateen or polished cotton can be affected by a wet finish, but by applying a fire resistant back coating the damage to the surface can be limited and they can meet most fire code requirements for upholstery use. They may not meet the requirements for drapery use and in some cases for upholstery use, ergo; it is advised that a sample be submitted for testing prior to specification and purchase.

UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD FABRIC BE TREATED FOR FIRE RESISTANCE? In an area of public assembly where 10 or more people will be gathered together at one time. It is important to check with the site's local fire marshal for the code each fabric application must meet. These codes vary per location and application.

DOES FLAME RESISTANCE HAVE ANY EFFECT ON DECORATIVE FABRICS? It is important to remember that non water durable dyes may bleed or fade when subjected to this wet finishing process. Normally those fabrics intended for commercial applications will be treated against sublimation and are not affected. Check with the firm from which you purchased the fabric.

DOES THE FINISHED PROCESS AFFECT FIBER REACTIVE DYED FABRICS? Yes. If a treated fiber reactive dyed fabric is exposed to the right amount of light, heat and humidity for a period of time the color will change, and in some cases, drastically. Non-saline and fire resistant back coatings can eliminate the problem. It is essential that the post processor be alerted when a fiber reactive dye has been used so that the fabric can be properly treated. Fiber reactive dyes will only be used in cotton.

DOES THE PROCESS SHRINK THE FABRIC? Yes, the process will shrink a fabric to the same degree water will shrink it. The degree depends on the fiber content and concentration. The average shrinkage is 3%. Casements shrink much more.

CAN A FLAME TREATMENT BE APPLIED TO A NANO TEX ITEM? Yes, but flame treatment must be applied before Nano Tex. If you require flame treatment on an item in our line that is offered only with Nano Tex, please contact us. We may be able to accommodate you.

ADDITIONAL TESTS

These listings are intended as a reference only. Inclusion in this guide does not indicate test data is available for a Calvin item.

BREAKING STRENGTH (ASTM D3597): Measures the maximum force applied to a material to force a rupture.

To Pass A.C.T. Standard: Acceptance Criteria (for warp and fill)

Upholstery: 50 lbs. Minimum

Panels and Upholstered Walls: 25 lbs. Minimum

Drapery: 15 lbs. Minimum

BRUSH PILL (ASTM D3511): Measures the propensity of a fabric to form pills (bunches or balls of tangled fibers that are held to the surface by one or more fibers.) Specimens are brushed with a nylon bristle brush for 4 minutes to create fuzzing and then rubbed face to face for 2 minutes to create pilling.

Rating System:

Class 5= No pilling or fuzzing

Class 4 = Slight pilling or fuzzing

Class 3= Moderate pilling or fuzzing

Class 2= Severe pilling or fuzzing

Class 1= Very severe pilling or fuzzing

To Pass A.C.T. Standard:

Upholstery – Class 3 Minimum

COLORFASTNESS TO WET/DRY CROCKING (AATCC 8/116/CFFA 7): Determines the amount of color transferred from the surface of a colored textile material to another surface by rubbing.

Rating System:

Class 5= No color transfer

Class 4= Slight color transfer

Class 3= Moderate pilling or fuzzing

Class 2= Severe pilling or fuzzing

Class 1= Very severe pilling or fuzzing

To Pass A.C.T. Standard:

Upholstery-Class 3 Minimum

COLORFASTNESS TO WET/DRY CROCKING (AATCC 8/116/CFFA 7): Determines the amount of color transferred from the surface of a colored textile material to another surface by rubbing.

Rating System:

Class 5= No color transfer

Class 4= Slight color transfer

Class 3= Moderate color transfer

Class 2= Considerable color transfer

Class 1= Excessive color transfer

To Pass A.C.T. Standard:

  • Upholstery

    Direct Glue Wall coverings

    Panels and upholstered walls

    Drapery (solid)

    Drapery (print)

  • Acceptance Criteria (Dry):

    Class 4 Minimum

    Class 3 Minimum

    Class 3 Minimum

    Class 4 Minimum

    Class 4 Minimum

  • Acceptance Criteria (Wet)

    Class 3 Minimum

    Class 3 Minimum

    Class 3 Minimum

    Class 3 Minimum

    Class 3 Minimum

COLORFASTNESS TO LIGHT (AATCC 16 H 20-40-80-120 HOURS): Assesses the specimen's ability to resist fading or color degradation when exposed to light (Xenon-arc light source) for a specified amount of time.

Rating System:

Class 5= No

Class 4=Slight fading or color change

Class 3=Noticeable fading or color change

Class 2= Considerable fading or color change

Class 1= Excessive fading or color change

To Pass A.C.T. Standard:

Upholstery, Direct Glue Wall coverings, Panel and Upholstered Walls – Class 4 Minimum (40) hours

Drapery -Class 4 Minimum (60) hours

FUNGAL RESISTANCE (ASTM G21/CFFA 120): Determines the susceptibility of textile materials to mildew and rot as well as evaluating the efficacy of fungicides on textile materials. Fungi used for testing are: Aspergillus nicer, Penicillium funiculosum, Chaetomium globusum, Aureobasidium pollutants and Trichoderma virus. Specimens subjected to a growth medium are incubated at a set temperature over a specified number of days. Ratings are determined by the percentage of fabric's surface affected by fungal activity. Both face and back are tested.

Rating System:

0- No fungal activity

1- Less than 10% of the fabric's surface is affected by fungal activity

2- 10-30% of the fabric's surface is affected by fungal activity

3- 30-60% of the fabric's surface is affected

4- 60-100% of the fabric's surface is affected

SEAM SLIPPAGE (ASTM 434): Measures the ability of a sewn seam to resist slippage or breakage when subjected to tension. The number of pounds of pressure required to separate the sewn seam determines the rating.

To Pass A.C.T. Standard: Acceptance Criteria (for warp and fill):

Upholstery, Panels and Upholstered Walls: 25 lbs. Minimum

Drapery fabric over 6 oz. /square yard: 25 lbs. Minimum

Drapery fabrics under 6oz/square yard: 15 lbs. Minimum

MARTINDALE ABRASION (ASTM D4966-89): European abrasion test using a British Wool Standard applied in a figure eight motion to determine point of yarn breakage and/or noticeable wear. The number of cycles the fabric can endure before showing objectionable change in appearance (yarn breakage, pilling, and holes) determines the rating. (The Martindale rating does not indicate a fabric's resistance of or propensity toward other signs of use such as changes in luster or nap, pilling, perceptible loss in breaking strength, visible change in color or appearance, etc.).

To Pass A.C.T. Standard:

General Contract Upholstery

Heavy Duty Upholstery

Acceptance Criteria:

No objectionable appearance change after 20,000 rubs

No objectionable appearance change after 40,000 rubs

MARTINDALE PILLING (ASTM D4970): Measures the propensity of a fabric to form pills (bunches or balls of tangled fibers which are held to the surface by one or more fibers). Usually three similar samples are tested with 125, 500, 2000 and eventually 5000 rotations.

Rating System:

Class 5= No pilling or fuzzing

Class 4= Slight pilling or fuzzing

Class 3= Moderate pilling or fuzzing

Class 2= Severe pilling or fuzzing

Class 1= Very severe pilling or fuzzing

To Pass A.C.T. Standard:

Upholstery-Class 3 Minimum

WYZENBEEK ABRASION (ASTM D4157): Abrasion test applying a piece of #10 cotton duck in a unidirectional rubbing action while under pressure to determine the point of yarn breakage and/or noticeable wear. (The Wyzenbeek rating does not indicate a fabric's resistance of or propensity toward other signs of use such as changes in luster or nap, pilling, perceptible loss in breaking strength, visible change in color or appearance, etc.)

Rating System for Regular Surface Effect:

Class 5= None or negligible wear

Class 4= Slight (not appreciable) wear

Class 3= Moderate (not appreciable) wear

Class 2= Appreciate wear (broken yarns-two yarn components are severed, floating yarns, etc.)

Class 1= Severe wear (complete fabric break)

Rating System for Special Surface Effect:

Class 5= No appreciable wear/change of special surface effect

Class 4= Slight (not appreciable) wear/change of special surface effect

Class 3= Moderate (not appreciable) wear/change of special surface effect

Class2= Appreciable wear/change of special surface effect, base yarns exposed

Class 1= Severe wear/change of special surface effect. Base yarns exposed & broken

To Pass A.C.T. Standard:

General Contract Upholstery

Heavy Duty Upholstery

Unrated

Acceptance Criteria:

No appreciable wear after 15,000 double rubs

No appreciable wear after 30,000 double rubs

Appreciable wear at fewer than 15,000 double rubs

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